Swiss Beauty Secrets

We all have heard of the famous French beauty secrets, including that “French women don’t get fat.” But have you heard of Swiss beauty secrets? Here are some of my favorites… 

  • A small square of dark chocolate every evening is filled with antioxidants and helps you satisfy your sweet tooth and stay slim (also, deserts are verboten). 
  • Facial appointments are like dentist appointments: mandatory at least twice per year once you become a teenager. 
  • Treat your body as much as you treat your face. Body care is as essential as face care. 
  • Makeup is for color only, to use on eyes and lips. Your skin should always show through – that’s the whole point of taking great care of your skin. 
  • Daily baths are a must, they allow your body to be weightless and take pressure off your joints. 

What are your favorite beauty secrets? 

 

Antioxidants for anti-aging

At Alchimie Forever, we believe phyto-antioxidants are the most powerful way to prevent and repair signs of skin aging. Indeed, antioxidants are not new to beauty and skin care industries and have been on everyone’s lips over the last few years, touted to be the latest “miracle in a jar.” But what exactly are antioxidants? What do they do? How do they work? And which ones should you use?

To understand antioxidants we must understand oxidants

Oxygen, essential to life, is metabolized in the body by successive reductions, leading to superoxide anion (O2.), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (.OH) generation. These different molecules are named reactive oxygen species (ROS), or oxidants; some are free radicals (defined by the presence of an unpaired electron), whereas others are non radical (such as H2O2, singlet oxygen 1O2).

Oxidants, when present in significant quantities, lead to oxidative stress which in turns damages cellular structures.

Exposure of the skin to UV is the main cause of oxidative stress: UV exposure induces the production of high quantities of oxidants, which damage DNA, lipids, membranes, intracellular and extracellular proteins, and sugars. Oxidants have both immediate and long lasting deleterious effects to the skin, including the appearance of actinic keratoses,  a  citrin coloration of the skin (lipid peroxidation), a loss of collagen and elastin (protein alterations), and finally skin cancer (DNA alterations).

Antioxidants: a way to fight oxidants

Antioxidants, as their name indicates, are the opposite of oxidants. What oxidants break, antioxidants can repair.

Endogenous antioxidants

The first key distinction in the family of antioxidants is whether they are endogenous (those produced by the human body) of exogenous (those not produced by the human body). Indeed, human cells are equipped with a series of endogenous antioxidants to deal with the damages caused by oxidants. Such endogenous antioxidants include the following enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and thioredoxine reductase. As we age, these endogenous antioxidants are gradually depleted over time; this consumption is accelerated by an increased production of oxidants. Hence the importance of exogenous antioxidants.

Exogenous antioxidants

          Synthetic antioxidants: the case of Idebenone

Idebenone is one of the better known synthetic antioxidants. It is an organic compound of the quinone family and promoted commercially as a synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Idebenone’s antioxidant role involves both the scavenging of oxidants as well as a preventative role in lipid peroxidation. It seems idebenone’s antioxidant properties function by virtue of the electron-donating properties of the hydroquinone form.

Idebenone is present in skin care products from brands such as Prevage (owned by Allergan) and True (which licenses idebenone from Allergan).

          Phytoantioxidants

The alternative to synthetic antioxidants are natural antioxidants, namely those derived from plants. Plants, like human beings, suffer from UV-generated oxidative stress – they live in the sun after all! Plants are, however, unable to protect themselves by moving into the shade or by using sunscreen. Consequently, plants have developed effective antioxidant strategies to protect themselves against the oxidizing stress induced by their environment, in particular UV exposure.

Phytoantioxidants fall into four main groups, namely enzymes, terpens, polyphenols, and vitamins. Some of the best known, and most studied phytoantioxidants are carotenoids (a terpen), and flavonoids and anthocyanins (polyphenols).

Green tea

Green tea contains four major flavonoids: epicatechin, epicatechin-gallate, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate. These molecules have the ability to scavenge oxidants including O2.-, .OH, H2O2 and 1O2. It has been shown that epigallocatechin applied topically with exposure to UVB inhibits the production of H2O2 in the dermis and epidermis. Numerous skin care brands use green tea, including Elizabeth Arden and Replenix.

Rosemary

Rosemary contains various antioxidants, in particular phenolic diterpens: carnosol and carnosic acid represent over 90% of the antioxidant properties of rosemary extract. These lipophilic molecules scavenge lipid free radicals, thereby enabling the reduction of lipid peroxidation and inhibiting oxidative damages to skin surface lipids. Carnosic acid also has photoprotective potential. Alchimie Forever and Clarins are two brands that use rosemary in their skin care products.

Grape seeds

Grape seeds are major sources of resveratrol and quercetin. The stilben resveratrol inhibits lipid peroxidation induced by UVB and significantly decreases UVB-induced skin thickness and oedema. The iron chelator flavonoid quercetin maintains and protects the activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase after exposure to UV radiation. Caudalie is an example of a skin care brand using grape seeds (and grapes) as its signature ingredient.

Tomato

Tomato is rich in lycopene, a widely studied powerful antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic carotenoid with strong reducing ability and the most effective carotenoid in the scavenging of the oxidant 1O2. Lycopene also scavenges lipid radicals, reduces lipid peroxidation and prevents erythema caused by UV radiation on the skin. Kiehl’s and Alchimie Forever both use tomato extract in their products.

Antioxidants represent a key therapeutic approach to preventing skin aging. More specifically, research indicates that the combination of multiple antioxidants at low concentrations represents the most effective approach. Indeed, different antioxidants (whether synthetic or natural) have difference mechanisms of action and target different parts of the cell, thus offering synergies when combined. In the world of antioxidants, 1 + 1 is not 2 but rather 5. As such, the more antioxidant products you use, the better off your skin will be!

On naturally-occurring parabens

At a recent industry conference, I gave a talk about one of my favorite topics, namely “controversial” ingredients. At that particular talk, I remembered why I love to speak at conferences, which is that I always learn something. During that presentation, I learned that there are such things as naturally-occurring parabens.  Indeed, these very controversial ingredients exist in nature, and specifically are found in blueberries, which is one of Alchimie Forever’s signature ingredients. Here is what I have since then learned on the topic:

–          Parabens do occur in nature

–          Naturally-occurring parabens have similar preservation properties as synthetic parabens; indeed, they are present in these plants to help them defend themselves against various micro-organisms

–          Not all plants have been tested for naturally-occurring parabens, so it is impossible to know if all plants contain these molecules or not

–          Most plants that have been tested for the presence of naturally-occurring parabens contain specifically methylpraraben and sometimes etyhlparaben (remember parabens are a family of various molecules)

–          Honeysuckle is one of the plants that is richest in naturally-occurring methylparaben

–          Other plants known to contain naturally-occurring parabens include: blueberries, carrots, olives, strawberries

–          In cosmetics, the labeling requirements for plants is to list the plant itself, the part of the plant that is used (leaf, flower, etc.), as well as the solvents and preservatives added to the plant extract; as such, naturally occurring parabens in plants would not be listed as parabens on the ingredient listing

–          The % of naturally occurring parabens in plants tends to be extremely low. For example, while in a cosmetic preparations parabens might make up to 0.3% of the formula, naturally-occurring methylparaben in blueberries is less than 0.003%

A final note about parabens: We at Alchimie Forever have decided to reformulate our products to remove parabens. Not for scientific reasons (we continue to believe that scientific data proves these are the safest and most efficacious preservatives), but for commercial reasons (in this case, perception has become reality, and the consumer has won). We will, of course, continue to use blueberries, and other powerful plant extracts. While they may extremely low concentrations of methylparaben to help defend themselves against various micro-organisms, they also contain quercetin, anthocyans, phenolic acids, and many more antioxidant molecules, which make them a powerful tool for both the repair and the prevention of free radical damage.